Biofilm

One of the major challenges with tarmfloradysbiose is biofilm. Complex biofilms with dysbiosebakterier and fungus allows it can be difficult to clean up a dysbiotisk flora. Here on Functional Medical Center, we see that getting loosened up in complex biofilms with dysbiosebakterier and fungi is essential to improve bowel function. This article is written to provide general information about what biofilm is and how it can be handled.
Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can grow freely in the fluid or be attached to a surface and / or to each other and form a film or aggregates known as biofilm . Microorganisms in biofilm produce extracellular materials, polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and / or DNA that help to bind them to each other and to the surface. The composition, thickness and structure of the biofilm is dependent on the mikrooganismer it consists of and environmental conditions (eg, temperature, nutrient supply, materials). Some biofilms are homogeneous and flat, while others have different structures and channels that ensure the transport of nutrients to the cells in the deepest layers of the biofilm. Matrix also consists of negatively charged polysaccharides (Extracellular polymeric substances) which are held together by the positively charged metal ions (calcium Ca2 +, Mg2 + magnesium and iron Fe2 +). In the matrix there is a network of open water channels. These channels tilgjengeligjør optimal nutrition in the biofilm and transfer of genetic material between organisms in the biofilm. The biofilm consists mainly of one or more types of microorganisms (sometimes it may be up to 500 different organisms) in a matrix produced by the bacteria itself and consisting of ca. 97% water and ca. 2% polysaccharides. This means that the biofilm has a characteristic, slimy character. Together microorganisms only 2-5% of the biofilm, but this may also contain DNA / RNA and proteins. It is stated that more than 90% of the bacterial biomass in the world exist in the form of biofilms.

By grow as a biofilm protects the microorganisms against numerous outer threats as antibacterial components (antibiotics, disinfectants, immune substances) and mechanical stress. Matrix protects the organisms in the biofilm from phagocytosis, antibiotics system, etcetera Biofilm is a challenge in many environments where you do not want microbial growth, as in the food and feed industry, water systems and in the household. Biofilm resistance to antibiotics and the immune system is a challenge in terms of getting rid of infections.
Biofilms can form on catheters and tracheal tube, in pipes and cooling towers, and is the cause of smooth stones along lakes and streams. Intestinal system inner surface is bathed in nutrient liquid where it quickly developed flakes of microorganisms wrapped in self-produced slime polysaccharides. Studies of biofilms is an important research area that provides knowledge about micro-ecology and symbiosis between microorganisms.
Clumping of microbes has been observed long before humans had tools to study them in detail. In 1684 noted Anthony van Leewenhoek that accumulation of microorganisms in dental plaque at the Royal Society of London «The number of These animicules in the scurf of a man’s teeth are so many That I believe They Exceed the number of men in a kingdom.»
When bacterial density in a biofilm reaches a threshold value, formed neurotransmitters, typically peptides, with more specific effects. The bacteria can respond to the signals so that a gene activation occurs synchronously. They can also exchange genes and gain new abilities. When a biofilm has these properties we call it a supra-organism.

Nedenfor kan en se hvordan biofilmen dannes og formeres:

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE BIOFILM LIFE CYCLE: 1) Free-floating, or planktonic,  bacteria encounter a submerged surface and within minutes can become attached. They begin to produce slimy extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and to colonize the surface. 2) EPS production allows the emerging biofilm community to develop a complex, three-dimensional structure that is influenced by a variety of environmental factors. Biofilm communities can develop within hours. 3) Biofilms can propagate through detachment of small or large clumps of cells, or by a type of «seeding dispersal» that releases individual cells. Either type of detachment allows bacteria to attach to a surface or to a biofilm downstream of the original community.
Norge har det vært utført mye nyttig forskning på Biofilm, blandt annet i Norfima, Veterinærinstituttet og Universitetet i Oslo, og det er opprettet et senter for biofilm forskning (www.biofilmforskning.no).
Mange av forskningsprosjektene som jobbes med dreier seg om å studere hvordan de uønskede mikroorganismene beskytter seg gjennom biofilmvekst, under hvilke forhold de danner biofilm og hvordan man kan unngå biofilmdannelse og bekjempe mikrober i biofilmer.
Desinfeksjonsmidler som klorin og hydrogenperoksid reagerer først med overflaten på matrikslaget, og kan miste mye av sin desinfiserende virkning før de når ned til bakteriene i biofilmen. Nydannelse kan derfor skje raskt etter slik «desinfeksjon», spesielt hvis den sterkt slimproduserende bakterien Pseudomonas aeruginosa er til stede. Gjentatte infeksjoner hos pasienter med urinkatetere, trakeostomi, eller som behandles med dialyse, kan skyldes motstandsevnen hos skadelige mikrober i biofilmer.

Biofilms are difficult to treat because:

  • It is resistant to doses of antimicrobial drugs 100 to 1,000 times above the minimum lethal dose for microbes outside the biofilm.
  • Antibiotics can not penetrate the polysaccharide matrix.
  • Very resistant to immunological and non-specific immune response in the body
  • Difficult to diagnose
  • microbes in the biofilm parts genetic material from each other to maintain resistance.
  • Communicates with each using quorum sensing molecules (signaling molecules).
  • Colonies has not OMP (outer membrane proteins) and therefore will be difficult to be detected by a natural immunity.We are considering whether it is a biofilm when:
    • there are symptoms of chronic and recurrent dysbiosis.
    • feces and urine cultures are negative, but the patient gets better under antifungal / antibiotics.There is growing interest in biofilm in colon, particularly with respect. Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis. There is also growing interest in relationship between the biofilm and not stomach / intestinal disorders as autiommunitet and neurological disorders such as autism.
      Removal of Biofilm
      Step 1:
      Light of biofilm and cleanup using enzymes Nattokinase / Interphase plus: Works best by toe on an empty stomach. The enzymes designed to break up polysaccharides bindings. Interphase plus also contains EDTA. EDTA forms complexes with cations (Ca2 +, Mg2 + and Fe2 +) in the extracellular matrix. EDTA is suitable to dissolve biofilm from psuedomonas. Apple cider vinegar can also be used as an alternative. EDTA alone is not enough to erradikere pathogenic bacteria in biofilms as Staphylococcus aureus, but may facilitate the microbial therapy could treat dysbiosis. If one also takes calcium or iron will dissolution of biofilms are completely blocked, so this is contraindicated.
      Fiber:
      Soluble / Not soluble
      Activated charcoal if necessary, microalgae, modified citrus pectin
      Step 2:
      Microbial therapy. Removal of unwanted flora with antimicrobial therapy as antifungal and antibiotic M.M.
      Step 3: Structure / Units for intestinal flora and intestinal cells Probiotics, prebiotics, fermented foods, non-toxic food, uplifting nutrient colostrum.
      Colostrum stimulates:

      1. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) which stimulates cell growth and accumulation,
      2. Transforming Growth Factors (TGF), which stimulates the synthesis and accumulation of RNA and DNA and building muscle tissue.
      3. Epithelial Growth Factor that stimulates normal hudtilvekst.